Saturday, February 8, 2020
Response to Post of Classmate on Education - Assignment Example Therefore, in human resource development, the scholar-practitioner role is seen to be similarly applicable through being apprised with current and future trends in human resources management and ensuring that best practices are imbibed in their respective work settings. The research methodology disclosed for the planned study about understanding how the social media influences peoples perception of certain social issues (prejudice and xenophobia) is commendable. One honestly believes that the concern regarding biases could be addressed, depending on the manner in which interview questions are to be designed. Actually, a survey-questionnaire method could be used to precede the interview method. Through the survey-questionnaire method, both the researcher and the respondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ demographic profile would not be seen as instrumental or contributory to the response. Likewise, the questions could be designed in the most appropriate manner to ensure objectivity. Any response that requires further clarification would be verified through the interview process. Utilization of a survey-questionnaire would enable reaching a wider range of respondents.
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Televising the Holocaust in America during the 1950s Essay Shylock is a monster of cruelty, miser, greedy, suspicious ,cunning , bloodthirsty ,revengeful, mean ,a bad father and a bad master. But it is the circumstances that made him like this. Shylock is a tragic figure, trapped by prejudice and driven to revenge by the treatment he receives He is not cruel by nature. He is human in inner-self as the Christians are. He is therefore the most injured man, insulted, abused and disgraced by the Christians and even by his own daughter, His cruelty is made by centuries of insult and outrage which the Christians inflicted upon the Jews race. Shylock became hard and savage by long and cruel oppression. He suffers immensely. ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s humiliation and sufferings can only be measured by someone who has experienced the alienation of a gross minority. From the very beginning of the play Shylock is a lonely man. His wife Leah ,whom he loves dearly ,is dead. His daughter Jessica is not much of a help, and infect adds to his loneliness. She betrays her father by robbing him of all his money after he had bestowed upon her the trust of his house. She not only takes the money but also marries Lorenzo, a Christian boy by changing her religion. This must have been particularly heart-breaking for the proud Jew. She later exchanges the turquoise ring of her mother for a monkey. Shylock is hated by Antonio because of his anti-Semitism. Antonio in particular spits upon him and calls him a cut-throat dog. So it is but natural that such a man begins to hate those persons who hate him. His hatred of Antonio is religious, patriotic ,personal and professional. Lorenzo elopes with his daughter that makes him more revengeful . He bears insults with patience. He says Ã¢â¬Å"sufferance is the badge of tribe. Ã¢â¬ In his impassioned speech in Act III ,Scene I ,beginning with Ã¢â¬Å"To bait fish withalÃ¢â¬ he rises to the magnitude of a tragic hero, Ã¢â¬Å" I am a Jew. Hath not a Jew eyes ,hath not a Jew Hands ,organs, dimensions, senses , fed with the same food ,hurt with the same weaponÃ¢â¬ ¦.. Ã¢â¬ It is a noble protest against inhumanity of treatment to which the Jews as a race have been subjected through the ages. Shylock, the Jew has hatred against the Christians in general but Antonio, the merchant of Venice in particular . He has strong reasons for it. The reason of his such revengeful attitude towords the Christians and in particular towards Antonio is ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s abhorrence towards him and his race which is the false belief of the ChristianÃ¢â¬â¢s that the Jews murdered Jesus Christ and therefore in league with the devil and this the Jews were actively working to subvert the spread of Christianity . this belief was driven by the early church. In Merchant of Venice Antonio abhorred Shylock because of this inherited belief. AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s treatment of Shylock is most unfriendly and insulting. He hates the Jews in general and Shylock in particular. He has publicly condemned Shylock. He has been spitting on him at the Rialto in the past and abusing him. He has called him a mis-believer and a cut-throat dog . He has often spat upon his Jewish gabardine. He has been heaping disgrace and insult upon him. Even when he seeks for loan from Shylock from his friend Bassanio Shylock recites the various insults and injuries he has received at AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s hands Antonio haughtily replied Ã¢â¬Å" I am as like to call thee so again. To spit on thee,to spurn thee too. Ã¢â¬ Naturally how can Shylock forget this humiliation he has received at the hands of Antonio. He is constantly abused by others as well. Gratiano calls him Ã¢â¬Å"inexorable dogÃ¢â¬ in the court infront of the Duke,and goes unpunished for slander. Even Solanio and Salerio calls him a villain and a dog. And they all hate him because he is a Jew. He survives in such a hostile environment like a man absorbing their insults ,yet never losing heart ,accumulating wealth in a fair manner no matter how much the Christians hate him for. Shylock is a fanatic Jew. He is a representative of the Jewish tribe . his vengeance on Antonio springs from the ancient and cruel hate which he as a Jew bears towards the Christians. Shylock is the champion of the persecuted Jewish race. He can not forget the centuries of insult and outrage heaped upon the the Jewish race by the Christians. ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s grudge is that Antonio abuses his sacred race. he feels that the Jews have been denied human rights by the Christians. He fells pained that Antonio gives loans to people without charging any interest and thus brings down the rate of interest in Venice. Shylocks profession as a Jew money-lender suffers by AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s generosity. Moreover ther is still another motive behind ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s revenge against Antonio. His daughter Jessica ,runs away with a Christian boy,Lorenzo,who is a friend of Antonio. The one single trait that puts him in the category of a villain is his all-consuming passion for revenge. He is prepared to kill for it. There is something horribly monstrous when he sharpens his knife to actually carry out his barbaric job of extracting a pound of flesh from AntonioÃ¢â¬â¢s body. Critics have explained his revenge to his hostile surroundings,his constant humiliation ,the persecution of Jewish tribe and the betrayal of his daughter. Yet,all these put together can not explain the hideousness and cruelty involved in the act ,that he is bent to carry out. However,the punishment that is meted out to him at the end of the trial scene is as barbaric as his feeling for revenge. After the trial scene he is deprived of all his wealth and ahat is worse ,is ordered to convert into Christianity,if he is to save his life. According to the modern standards,the forcible conversion was a sin,for we regard the question of salvation as a personal issue on which no extraneous authority has a right to interfere. So ,from this point of view the Christian court of Venice did injustice to this man. To have punished the Jew by confiscating his property would have been sufficient to meet the end of justice but to go out of its way to force him to change the creed of his forefathers would be an act of inhumanity which can not be defended according to the sense of justice. Throughout the play ,ShylockÃ¢â¬â¢s persecution is massive and heart-rendering. We can not but feel sympathy for the man at the end of the play. But the hideous design that Shylock makes in order to take his revenge upon Antonio is not supportable at all. _____________________________________ Reference: 1)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Merchant_of_venice 2)http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Shylock 3)http://www. britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/542457/Shylock 4)http://www. articlemyriad. com/character_analysis_shylock_merchant_venice_shakespeare. htm.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In August of 2005, Hurricane Katrina vigorously tore apart the U.S. Gulf Coast Region killing at least 1500 people, ranking at the third deadliest hurricane in United States history. Author of Survival and Death in New Orleans, Patrick Sharkey (2007), looked specifically at data on New Orleans residents that perished during Katrina in an attempt to look at the communities that were most affected by this unfortunate disaster. The storm took the largest toll on the elderly population and by African Americans, who he argued were overrepresented in comparison to whites. The toll was not only physical but mentally damaging as well, due to the overwhelming amount of loss to their homes, family members, pets, and childhood neighborhoods in which they grew up in. Evidence from Ismail WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) study entitled, Feeling the Pain of my People, concluded that African Americans felt that the federal governments lacked in response to the hurricane and was so insufficient that had the vi ctims been white, the government would have acted differently. Therefore suggested traditions of economic and racial segregation has misrepresented segments of urban neighborhoods that have been isolated from resources, political influence, and economic gain and are therefore more susceptible to disasters, like Katrina. Images of New Orleans residents stranded throughout the city left a permanent impact towards those who followed media coverage, suggesting that the stormÃ¢â¬â¢s damage has been viewed at as anything but a natural disaster. Ã¢â¬Å"Katrina has come to be interpreted by some as a Ã¢â¬Å"metaphor,Ã¢â¬ for the inequality that pervades urban American, affecting poor, primarily Black segments of the urban populace most directlyÃ¢â¬ (Sharkey 2007: 483). African Americans... ... a separation due to race, but in fact due to environmental justice. Therefore there is not a substantial amount of evidence to support either authorÃ¢â¬â¢s claims. The studies lacked evidentiary support in both reports, such as the correct number of deaths and had insufficient samples that were not directly affected and could have been influenced by the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s response or prior opinion. While examples such as the bridge incident did include racism towards New Orleans residents, it did not specify the race or ethnicity of what kind of people were forbidden to walk across the bridge to safety, but instead excluded everyone. Perhaps therefore then the issue is not simply race, but more so geological, economical, and social inequality that has led those citizens to feel that they had been the target of such a tragic disaster that has changed their way of life forever. Environmental Inequality Essay -- Natural Disaster, Hurricane Katrina In August of 2005, Hurricane Katrina vigorously tore apart the U.S. Gulf Coast Region killing at least 1500 people, ranking at the third deadliest hurricane in United States history. Author of Survival and Death in New Orleans, Patrick Sharkey (2007), looked specifically at data on New Orleans residents that perished during Katrina in an attempt to look at the communities that were most affected by this unfortunate disaster. The storm took the largest toll on the elderly population and by African Americans, who he argued were overrepresented in comparison to whites. The toll was not only physical but mentally damaging as well, due to the overwhelming amount of loss to their homes, family members, pets, and childhood neighborhoods in which they grew up in. Evidence from Ismail WhiteÃ¢â¬â¢s (2007) study entitled, Feeling the Pain of my People, concluded that African Americans felt that the federal governments lacked in response to the hurricane and was so insufficient that had the vi ctims been white, the government would have acted differently. Therefore suggested traditions of economic and racial segregation has misrepresented segments of urban neighborhoods that have been isolated from resources, political influence, and economic gain and are therefore more susceptible to disasters, like Katrina. Images of New Orleans residents stranded throughout the city left a permanent impact towards those who followed media coverage, suggesting that the stormÃ¢â¬â¢s damage has been viewed at as anything but a natural disaster. Ã¢â¬Å"Katrina has come to be interpreted by some as a Ã¢â¬Å"metaphor,Ã¢â¬ for the inequality that pervades urban American, affecting poor, primarily Black segments of the urban populace most directlyÃ¢â¬ (Sharkey 2007: 483). African Americans... ... a separation due to race, but in fact due to environmental justice. Therefore there is not a substantial amount of evidence to support either authorÃ¢â¬â¢s claims. The studies lacked evidentiary support in both reports, such as the correct number of deaths and had insufficient samples that were not directly affected and could have been influenced by the mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s response or prior opinion. While examples such as the bridge incident did include racism towards New Orleans residents, it did not specify the race or ethnicity of what kind of people were forbidden to walk across the bridge to safety, but instead excluded everyone. Perhaps therefore then the issue is not simply race, but more so geological, economical, and social inequality that has led those citizens to feel that they had been the target of such a tragic disaster that has changed their way of life forever.
Monday, January 13, 2020
The government and policymakers of a country intervenes in the economy in order to achieve economic growth, price stability, and low rate of unemployment. First and foremost, economic growth can be defined as an increase in the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s output over a period of time. This means there is an increment in her productive capacity hence a rise in national income. A high economic growth is desirable as it represents an improvement in the material standard of living of the society. A rising real income per head brings about more and better quality goods and services, which are available for consumptions of individuals. However, an improvement in the case of consumer welfare due to economic growth is highly doubtful if the growth is accompanied by undesirable side effects such as negative externalities, leisure time forgone or even a dilution in the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s tradition & custom. Through redistribution of income, economic growth can eliminate poverty. A higher output allows households to enjoy more goods and services thus generating higher income and through the multiplier effect increases national income by folds. Besides that, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s tax revenue will rise too, leading to more benefits for the poor such as education and training. This may even help curb the problem of poverty. The authority also highly regards sustaining a stable price level as a primary objective of economic policy. This is because inflation, defined as a sustained and inordinate increase in the general price level, could have harmful effects both socially and economically. A rising price level creates uncertainties and complicates decision-making, thus may hamper economic growth. Fluctuations in the level of prices makes information conveyed by prices harder to interpret. Consumer, firms, and the government may face a tough time in allocating funds or resources for the future in an inflationary environment. Furthermore, as the society strives to maintain its real value of income by keeping up with rising price level and competing with other social classes, the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s social fabric could be severely strained. The mere existence of inflation means that the real value of money is falling. Thus, it will be necessary for the government to intervene inÃ the economy in order to prevent hyperinflation from happening. The countries that experienced the most extreme examples of trotting inflation are Argentine, Brazil and Russia. The slow growth brought about eventually crippled virtually the entire economic system. Every government places a low rate of unemployment at the top of its priority. The percentage of total labor force unemployed makes up the rate of unemployment. Economic costs of unemployment can be devastating, as it could mean a lower Gross Domestic Product (GDP) to loss of potential income to factors of production, whilst social costs such as increased poverty, personal hardships to individuals, decay of unused skills, raise in crime rates and family disputes prove the worthiness of the goal of achieving high employment. On the other hand, stability of a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s exchange rate in the foreign exchange market (FOREX) is vital, as fluctuations of the exchange rate create adverse effects to the economy. There are mainly two cases which are prevalent in most economies. Firstly, an appreciation of the exchange rate may cause exports to become relatively dearer, and lead to loss of competitiveness (comparative advantage) to a country. Secondly, a depreciation of the exchange rate brings about serious domestic inflation, encourages exodus of capital and thus puts the country under stress of lack of investment and unemployment. On the external aspect, the government aims to achieve equilibrium in the balance of payment, especially the current account. A deficit in the current account drains the savings and reserve of a country significantly, leading to a chain effect of higher national debt and burden to future generations. In view of the above objectives, the government is needed to regulate and rectify situations. Therefore, the conclusion can be arrived that government intervention is fundamental to every economies in the world.
Sunday, January 5, 2020
Brennyn Mackey 2 May 2011 The Secret War of Salem Exposing the Culprit behind the Mass Hysteria The Salem Witch Trials were a series of infamous events that demand an explanation for their occurrence. The trials that took place in 1692 caused neighbors in the community of Salem Village in the colony of Massachusetts to turn on one another out of paranoia, accusing one another of witchcraft. According to Carol Karlsen, a longtime author of the subject, nineteen people were hanged and about 200 others were imprisoned (40). A few theories have been offered in order to explain the root of this mass hysteria. The theories in question need to be examined to see which holds the most credibility. Most historians who haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to their research: Ergot poisoning in individuals with adequate vitamin A intakes leads to gangrenous rather than convulsive symptoms. Vitamin A is found both in fish and in dairy products. Salem Village was a farming community and Salem Town, which bordered the village, was a well-known seaport; cows and fish were plentiful. There is no evidence to suggest a vitamin A deficiency in the diet of the inhabitants, and it would be particularly unlikely for the so-called afflicted girls, some of whom came from well-to-do farming families. The absence of any instance of gangrenous symptomatology makes it highly unlikely that ergot played any role in the Salem crisis (Spanos). The theory that there was an ergot infestation does not seem to hold up to the accounts of Spanos and Gottlieb. The theory of ergot infestation has slowly lost credibility due to these pieces of evidence. Another theory that attempts to explain the paranoia is the theory that witchcraft was being practiced in the community. The word Ã¢â¬Å"witchÃ¢â¬ came into English from Wicca, an Anglo-Saxon word that means Ã¢â¬Å"wise oneÃ¢â¬ (Buckland 26). Witches have been viewed throughout history as servants of Satan, spreading misfortune. This is an exaggerated stereotype similar to the misconception that witches fly around on broomsticks and transform intoShow MoreRelatedEssay on The Theories of the Salem Witch Trials1135 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Theories of the Salem Witch Trials The Salem Witch trials and what caused them is very debatable. Some theories lead to Rye poisoning from bread to even people faking it. The most believable claim is that people were faking it. Everyone had a motive and they all just wanted to save themselves. It was a time when people were selfish and only cared for themselves. This time in Salem was a troubling time, making it seem likely that satan was active (Linder). The townsfolk are believed to haveRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials Is Unknown1590 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages It is due to contrasting views and opinions that the real cause of the Salem Witch Trials is unknown. It is through major factors like the personal context of the historian that there are these differing thoughts. The people and society that a person is surrounded by for an extended amount of time can help to mold and create the personal opinions that a historian may hold. HistorianÃ¢â¬â¢s thought have been shaped and changed by the people and places that they spent a large amount of time around, theyRead MoreThe Salem Witch Trials691 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pageswere the Salem Witch Trials? The Trials happened in 1692 in Puritan Massachusetts, in a town called Salem. Nineteen men and women were hanged on grounds of practicing dark magic and making a pact with Satan (in other words, for being witches). Hundreds of people were imprisoned; several died there. Additionally, one man (of over seventy years!) was crushed to death with heavy stones and the lives of many were irrevocably changed. (Salem Witch Museum) IQ #2- How and why did the Salem WitchRead MoreThe Causes Of The Salem Witch Trials1748 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Salem witch trials were a series of different court trials. They occurred after a group of young girls were claimed to be possessed by the devil. These individuals experienced hallucinations. Some of the suspects explained the attacks as if bugs were crawling under their skin. When the outbreak began to spread, the government proceeded to accuse multiple people in the colony of witchcraft. This is how the Salem witch trials came to be. The trials took place in colonial Massachusetts. AccordingRead MoreEssay on Ergotism, Hysteria, and Disorders Detected in Salem889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMany people believe the Salem Witch Trials were caused by Ergotism, while others believe it to be just a form of hysteria, but what if I told you it could have been all of those combined together with another theory added in? 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Saturday, December 28, 2019
Sample details Pages: 9 Words: 2826 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/04/26 Category Entertainment Essay Level High school Tags: Video Games Essay Did you like this example? Introduction While the video game industry is still in its infancy, it has found many ways to educate us, be they in a positive or negative way. That said, being so young, it tends to borrow from existing media forms when creating content. The special thing about video games is that they are much more interactive than other forms of media. While most media forms are ones that are created and then distributed or simply derive their significance from the referenced medium(such as watching a TV show or stating opinions online about that movie you just finished), these media forms generally cannot be changed when you receive them; that movie will always play out the same no matter how many times you play it, and that TV show will quickly become dated as it is most likely rooted in then current culture. Video games, on the other hand, are much more malleable in terms of how the experience plays out, especially on repeat plays. While no two reactions to the same movie or TV show are different, the expe rience that is provided by the medium itself(before being mediated through social location and such) is always the same. With video games, no two playthroughs will be exactly the same, neither will each players reception toward that playthrough. This variety in both given and received experiences separates video games from most media forms, mainly since the delivered content cant be changed. Metaphorically, its like filtering light. Most media forms have a single message that they transmit, like a colored laser. The gaming medium, by contrast, can alter its presentation, like a laser that could change color each time it was fired. Overall, this would indicate a wide(ish) array of creative options when designing a video game. While they can havetheir target audience, they also have the ability to captivate the interest of demographics outside their own, deliberately or otherwise. While this wouldnt mean much for those brands that see only one game and arent thought of again, this may be different for those franchises that have aged, especially as that age grows. For the rest of this piece, I will be looking at the aging of the Pokemon franchise across its 20 year history, specifically looking at the increase of adult/mature/dark themes/tropes and how this relates to the age(s) of the franchises growing player base. To do this, I will be looking at several themes, including why the average age of gamers in general is where it is, what keeps gamers interested in long-runners, what kinds of mature innuendo makes it into games, and how this increase in maturity has bled into other properties associated with the franchise in particular.Literature ReviewAs for why the average age of gamers is what it is, a study conducted on about 4000 Hungarian gamers(Nagygy 2013) related age with gaming habits both spending and time investment, preference by genre, and proficiency(amateur or professional), while (Lawson, 2007) related age with compassion for virtual pets. The Hunga rian study determined that, among other things, real-time strategy game players tended to be older, while role-playing-gamers tended to sink the most time into their games, while women tended to play games that didnt go into any of the major genres studied (First Person Shooter, Role Playing Game, etc.)This may simply be due to the general size of RPGs while RTS players tended to sink time as a means to improve at the game. That said, many RTS players age and preference may be linked because they have the flexibility to play whenever, a luxury which many young gamers cant afford, likely due to nothaving the time necessary to devote to the task, while (Lawson, 2007) found a strong correlation between younger age and compassion for virtual pets, citing the successful marketing campaign of virtual pets to young children as proof. This would line up with the idea that audiences social location impacts how they approach a work and how they gleam meaning from it. This trend maycause audie nces to tend to cluster around certain features of a work they like (creating fan art or interpreting what content means and sharing their findings). While these groups tend to overlap, there are still more isolated sectors of these groups that, given the examples above, either dont care about fan art or cant be bothered to process the complexities of their content.Some reasons why gamers tend to stick with long-running franchises are provided, though not directly, by a study regarding TV ratings surrounding soccer games( Mutz and Wahnschaffe 2016) and how they fluctuate over the course of the game. They found that the levels of excitement (suspense, uncertainty, Whatll happen next?) were driving factors when connecting the gamestate with ratings. If applied to gamers and long-running/older franchises, this can play out when a new installment of a franchise comes out, and the adopters of the previous iteration or fans from the old days gain an interest in the next one, asking whats different about this one? or excitement over what has succeeded, sparking a new interest wave for adopters old and new. If the game does well among fans, it will continue to garner attention from said fans, alerting the developers/publishers what has worked so they can implement these successful designs into future creations.There has also been a disparity in what kinds of mature/adult/dark themes make it into video games. While there is a rating system in place to inform consumers on what content they can expect to find in the game, these ratings are rather flexible in terms of what is acceptable in agiven game. (Haninger, Thompson, 2004), (Thompson, 2001), and (Downs, 2010) highlight some of these instances by compiling every instance of gameplay mechanics and/or presentation that warranted an ESRB content descriptor. They found that most of their samples contained violence, blood, or sexual themes, and female characters were likely to be sexualized over male ones, among other thi ngs. This is despite some of the games either having no descriptor when there is an instance or the researchers not finding an instance during their data-gathering sessionsdespite the content descriptor being attached. To be precise, it is those instances that dont have descriptors assigned to them that I intend to focus on for this piece, as these are references that either werent deemed strong enough to warrant a notice or that escaped the eye of the censors. Some examples include the occasional blood splatter in a The Legend of Zelda game or a game that rewards player experimentation in very erotic ways. Seeing as this was one of the few readily available forms of erotic material, younger people jumped at the opportunity, and several convoluted methods were found to access these naughty pictures that the developers had put in as a reward for discovering this convoluted method. (Owens, 2012) examines the general impact of porn on young people. While these arent the only things tha t can slip past the censors, it generally shows what can. Id theorize that developers put these kinds of easter eggs as rewards for exploration or to increase the audience that will derive enjoyment from the product by catering to their sensibilities and/or tastes. Finally, there has been some bleeding over from medium to medium regarding franchise content. For this line, we look at (Lapite, 2012) who examined sexual implications fromthe cartoon that the Pokemon franchise is derived from. Often times, the cartoons seasons tend to follow the same iterative pattern as the games, but the games are often ahead of the cartoon. This has generally allowed for the plots of the cartoon to be much more developed than those of the then current iteration of the games. While its a different example than what the analyzer looked at, this one still illustrates the point; in the Sun and Moon iteration of the games, death is often not brought up in a direct manner. Instead, it is often aluded to, al though it is sometimes more obvious than others. IN the cartoon, however, the topic of death has already been discussed and depicted far more realistically, and two times at that. To return to the example being analyzed, the iteration of the games that that particular episode takes place in doesnt have much in the way of objectionable content, while the cartoon that most likely came long after the games came out has far more eyebrow-raising themes despite both franchise branches being about the same age. This would indicate a very different target demographic between the cartoon and the games. This would again uphold the concept of social location shaping audiences responses to media and how the writer/developers approach these interpretations. In the case of the cartoon, the themes that get presented are those of a rather amorous nature, while those presented in the game are of a more violence-implicative nature, which translates to what audiences tend to engage with the medium, an d so developers/writers start to cater towards this new subset more and more, until heavy subjects like death and crippling failure are brought up regularly.Data/MethodsMy data gathering methods were quite simple. Using Google Scholar, I searched for terms such as Mature Content in Video Games and Content Ratings in order to narrow down research that pertained to the inclusion of mature content in video games whose target audience wouldnt be able to perceive their significance. For my media examples, since I have personal experience with the Pokemon franchise, I took rather basic plot summaries from a community-driven agrigation site known as Bulbapedia, as well as another community-driven website known as TV Tropes, a site dedicated to writing and storytelling conventions spanning every known medium. Given that these are subject to the pitfalls associated with community input, these examples are merely a starting point for locating such subversive content in the various Pokemon gam es listed, as well as providing some background for the more plot-relevantexamples of mature content. My coding scheme was very similar to (Haninger, Thompson, 2004)s, where they classified various instances of violence, sexual themes, profanity, and substance use. The only deviation from this model is the inclusion of allusions to the above themes, as that type of innuendo is what usually makes up most of the examples.Findings As for what my media examples have provided in the realm of why older people are gaming more, this can be attributed to a few things; either those that played the games are staying with the franchise, or people that were exposed to the franchises popularity at an older age have come in with the introduction of Pokemon Go!, a mobile phone game based on the Pokemon games. We can see this with the release of Pokemon ?Lets Go!, an attempt by GameFreak, the source of the Pokemon games, to bridge the gap between Pokemon Go! Players and those of the main Pokemon gam es, combining old and new in an effort to unify the community.As the Pokemon franchise has gone on for over 20 years, there must be something thatskeeping the older players engaged enough to want to pick up the latest game. Like with the soccer ratings article above, we can see that the later games include many new features and/or quality-of-life improvements, as well as homages to the previous games. The main draw, however, is the Pokemon themselves. There will usually be about 100 new Pokemon added to the list inn every new iteration, and most of the anticipation for that next iteration comes from what these new Pokemon are. Luckily, we are actually in an iterative shift, as the next major game to start the next iteration of the game series is due in late 2019, allowing for much anticipation/excitement to build. The games themselves also tend to retain interest by making callbacks to previous games, usually by connecting major characters or plot points from previous games to the c urrent games, or by flat-out having previous characters make a return in some capacity. With this continued stream of interest, its no surprise that the franchise has continued for so long, and I see an equally long future ahead.Now for the interesting part; what kinds of mature content gets included in these games. Simply put, the amount of content that alludes to or outright states something that may be objectionable has steadily increased with the age of the franchise itself. We went from a loneold man exclaiming that a Pokemon Gym(not the workout kind) was great because its full of women! to an old man whose wife recently died and is looking for some company in his remaining time because hes just that lonely without his wife, to a group of old people who wax philosophical about the inevitability of old age and/or death including their own, with one old woman stating that, while shes gotten a lot of plastic surgery and such to look as youthful as possible, her bones remind her of her true age, and an old man who compares life to the suns rising and setting. While these games have been rated E for Everyone(ages 6+) only older players will be able to truly grasp and/or appreciate the weight of what is being delivered to them. As noted by the team that content-analyzed Teen rated games, these allusions and philosophical statements arent seen as strong enough to warrant a content descriptor, despite how mentally exhausting it must be to process such themes as death, failure, and lingering regrets. This ultimately plays into what the developers want to do; reach a wider audience. If not directly through serious/complex plot threads, then through rewarding exploration and interaction through the interesting side missions like the one that features our philosophical elders from earlier or one that tasks you with returning a Pokemon that once belonged to a nowdead grandfather to his granddaughter for her to raise. This is the type of gameplay that many RPG players live for, as seen with ( Mutz and Wahnschaffe 2016)s analysis of gamers and their place in the gaming community. While younger players may find the time to be able to partake in long play sessions that allow for exploratory periods, it is the older player base that are more likely to embrace an entire side story, while younger players may see only the reward at the end of a side mission or such.With the media bleeding effect discussed earlier, we can also see the increase of mature content when the game material itself is adapted into a cartoon form. Pokemon Generations, an animated series of mini-episodes created to celebrate the franchises 20th anniversary by showcasing key moments across the games history, expands on some of the plot points from the games that they came from. In Pokemon X and Y, much of the main conflict is centered around AZ, an ancient king whose Pokemon wife(strange as it sounds) died during a war, and hisstruggle to live with himself after creating a machine to resurrect his wife using the life force of many Pokemon, only to convert it into a tool for ultimate destruction after his resurrected Pokemon left him in horror of what he had done in order to restore it, bringing the war, and many more lives, people and Pokemon alike, to an end in an instant. In the Pokemon Generations episode that focuses on this event, the story that was told in all of about 2.5 min. inthe game is played over a battle that the main character has with AZ at what is meant to be the end of the main game. This story is far more detailed and/or horrific, most likely owing to the fact there is actual voice-overs for it when there was none in the game. This would indicate that even between faithful media adaptions, there can be an increase of the contents maturity just by how that content is presented.ConclusionIn conclusion, we can see through the Pokemon franchise that while media creators can target a particular audience, they will try to appeal to a much wider a udience than that target, and will often do so by incorporating content and/or allusions that would fly over the heads of the target audience while hitting those demographics that are also likely to consume that media, be it due to brand loyalty or because of simple curiosity. We can see this with media forms apart from video games, as the soccer TV ratings ( Mutz and Wahnschaffe 2016) and Pokemon cartoon (Lapite, 2012) analyses can attest to. With that, we can see how this, and other long-running franchises, can persist despite their aging roots. This will help in understanding the general life cycle of such long-runners, and may aid in standardizing the criteria for assessing what could make a good long-runner, allowing media creators to better expand their creativity to produce more complex, yet still manageable, franchises that adopters old and new can enjoy. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Sex And Violence In Video Games" essay for you Create order
Friday, December 20, 2019
Chapter 13 Chapter 12 Communication and Governance Discussion Questions 1. AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory increased from $3.2 billion on December 31, 2010, to $5.0 billion one year later. In addition, sales for the fourth quarter of those years increased from $12.9 billion in 2010 to $17.4 billion in 2011. What is the implied annualized inventory turnover for Amazon for these years? What different interpretations about future performance could a financial analyst infer from this change? What information could AmazonÃ¢â¬â¢s management provide to investors to clarify the change in inventory turnover? What are the costs and benefits to Amazon from disclosing this information? What issues does this change raise for the auditor? What additional tests wouldÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦2. b. How useful is financial accounting data for evaluating how well these two companies are managing their critical success factors? What other types of information would be useful in your evaluation? What are the costs and benefits to these companies from disclosing this type of information to investors? For a high-tech firm, non-financial accounting types of useful information could include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Long-term strategy for the firm; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Market share by product; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Introduction schedules for new products and updates of existing ones; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Profitability of individual products; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Forecasts of future performance; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Third-party evaluations of firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Estimates of switching between firmÃ¢â¬â¢s products and those of its competitors. For a large, low-cost retailer, types of useful non-financial accounting information could include: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Long-term strategy of the firm; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sales and profitability per store, per existing store, per new store, and by region of the country; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Number and locations of new stores; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Number and locations of closed stores; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Management initiatives to reduce costs; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Disclosure of volume discounts negotiated with major suppliers; Ã¢â¬ ¢ Understanding of how firm manages its value chain through use of technology; and Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sales and cost projections. In general, both types of firms will benefit from greater disclosure by